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The Role of Government Policies in Revitalizing Nigeria's Steel Sector



A formidable steel sector is beyond merely a component of Nigeria's economic engine; it is the foundation for long-term prosperity and national security. However, Nigeria's steel sector confronts tremendous obstacles that have hampered its ability to contribute significantly to economic progress.  Infrastructure shortcomings, regulatory inconsistency, technological limits, and fierce competition from foreign steel products are among the challenges the sector has faced for years.

The recovery of Nigeria's steel sector is dependent on deliberate government measures. By undertaking targeted measures, the Government can promote development and reposition the industry as an essential driver of economic growth. The Nigerian Government could enhance steel production efficiency and competitiveness by investing in infrastructure, encouraging R&D, providing investment incentives, and enforcing trade and tariff rules. These policies seek to modernize manufacturing methods, enhance product quality, and lower prices, all while encouraging local steel use and contributing to Nigeria's economic development. This article explores the forthcoming strategies to revitalize the steel sector.

The Crucial Role of Steel in Nigeria's Economic Development and Security

Steel is essential in multiple sectors of the Nigerian economy, including building, infrastructure development, manufacturing, and transportation. Steel's strength and durability make it indispensable in constructing high-rise structures, bridges, and residential complexes. It strengthens concrete in foundations and structural components, guaranteeing stability and durability. Steel is also utilized extensively in infrastructure projects such as bridges, roads, trains, and telecommunications equipment. Steel is a fundamental material for equipment, cars, appliances, and industrial tools because of its versatility and durability. The transportation industry relies on steel for vehicle construction, which improves safety and fuel economy. Steel's broad use emphasizes its importance in promoting economic growth, industrial development, and infrastructural resilience throughout Nigeria's many sectors. A thriving steel sector generates jobs, supports economic diversification, and lowers reliance on imported steel. By increasing local steel production, the industry creates jobs in mining, manufacturing, and allied industries. This expansion benefits downstream sectors such as construction, car manufacturing, and infrastructure development, increasing economic diversity and lowering reliance on imported commodities. Furthermore, a robust domestic steel sector strengthens national security by providing a consistent supply for vital infrastructure and defence projects, reducing susceptibility to foreign shocks, and increasing economic resilience.

Challenges facing the Nigerian Iron and Steel Sector

Despite abundant indigenous resources and previous investments of more than $7 billion, Nigeria's iron and steel sector needs help achieving stability and self-sufficiency. According to the United Nations COMTRADE database, this is demonstrated by the country's reliance on imported steel supplies, with imports totalling $1.18 billion in 2020 alone. Import figures from the National Bureau of Figures for the third and fourth quarters of 2021 indicate Nigeria's reliance on imported iron, steel, and associated items totalling N837.76 billion. Although having enormous reserves, including three billion metric tons of iron ore, three billion metric tons of coal, over 700 million metric tons of limestone, and 187 billion standard cubic feet (SCF) of natural gas, the country struggles to build a viable domestic iron and steel industry. Long-standing impediments, such as infrastructural deficits, regulatory inconsistencies, and technical constraints, must be overcome to realize the sector's full potential and achieve long-term industrial growth. Source: Daily Trust

Substandard infrastructure: The steel sector demands consistent electricity generation and good transportation networks. Steel manufacturing depends on steady and dependable electricity; however, Nigeria's infrastructure, particularly in these vital sectors, is unreliable, raising production costs and stifling industry growth. For steel producers who use alternate energy sources to keep up constant output, this means higher prices.

High Cost of Operating Business: The high cost of doing business in Nigeria creates substantial problems for steel businesses, affecting their domestic and global competitiveness. High import taxes, complicated bureaucratic processes, and uncertain laws contribute to higher steel companies' operational costs. Import taxes increase the cost of importing the supplies and machinery required for steel manufacturing. Complicated bureaucratic processes and uncertain legislation generate inefficiencies, resulting in delays and increased expenses for acquiring permits, licenses, and approvals. These problems add to the overall cost of doing business for steel businesses, reducing their capacity to compete successfully in both home and international markets.

Outdated Technology and Lack of Modernization: Many steel companies in Nigeria use obsolete technologies, significantly reducing the sector's productivity and competitiveness. This dependence on outmoded technology reduces manufacturing efficiency, increases energy consumption, and lowers product quality. Furthermore, a lack of investment in modernizing equipment and procedures reduces the industry's ability to compete worldwide. Significant investments and attempts to modernise technology and procedures are required to overcome these difficulties and improve the performance of Nigeria's steel business. By executing modernization plans and embracing innovative technologies, the industry may increase efficiency, lower costs, enhance product quality, and boost its position in local and international markets.

Incomplete and unused Steel Projects: Despite enormous expenditures, Nigeria's flagship steel project, the Ajaokuta Steel Mill, still needs to be completed and used. Failure to finish and optimize projects such as Ajaokuta is a significant setback for industry progress and adds to sector inefficiencies.

With decades of planning and expenditures totalling $7 billion, Nigeria's iron and steel business still needs to overcome severe hurdles. The Ajaokuta Steel Company (ASC) is still closed, while other critical facilities, such as the Delta Steel Company (DSC) and rolling mills around the country, are operating at much-reduced capacity. These difficulties have resulted in changes in the sector's production value added (PVA) and capacity utilization. According to data from the Manufacturers Association of Nigeria, between 2016 and 2020, the Production Manufacturing Value (PMV) in the base metal, iron, steel, and fabricated metal products sectoral group was N240.623 billion in 2016, N408.347 billion in 2017, and N503.9 billion in 2018. However, in later years, the PMV decreased to N483.424 billion in 2019 and dropped further to N324.480 billion by 2020. Source: Daily Trust

Global Competition from Established Manufacturers: Nigeria's steel sector encounters stiff competition from well-established steel producers in other nations, particularly those with economies of scale, sophisticated technology, and a strong market presence. These global rivals have tremendous advantages, making it difficult for Nigerian enterprises to compete on pricing and quality fronts. Larger steel companies enjoy economies of scale, allowing them to operate more effectively and provide competitive prices. Furthermore, using advanced technology improves their manufacturing processes, resulting in higher-quality steel products that satisfy international requirements. These competitors' strong market presence reinforces their positions, making it critical for Nigerian steel companies to implement strategic measures such as technology upgrades, operational efficiencies, and targeted market strategies to enhance competitiveness and secure their foothold in the global steel market.

The Role of Government in Revamping the Nigerian Steel Sector

The mining industry in Nigeria has experienced low performance, as indicated by recent reports from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). In the fourth quarter of 2023, the Mining and Quarrying sector contributed 4.47 per cent to the overall GDP, lower than the contributions recorded in the same period of 2022 (4.51 per cent) and the previous quarter (8.32 per cent). There is a need to attract investments in mineral exploration, reignite mining project development, accelerate new mineral discoveries, and promote the optimal utilization of Nigerian mineral resources in alignment with environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) principles for sustainable growth. This call for strategic reform underscores the importance of revitalizing the mining and steel sectors to drive economic development and industrialization in Nigeria. Source: Forefront NG

This section delves into the roles the government could play in revamping the Nigerian steel sector.

Infrastructure Development: The Government could resolve infrastructural difficulties in Nigeria's steel business by enhancing power generation, transportation networks (roads and railroads), and access to raw materials. Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) can help attract private investment and expertise for infrastructure projects. By collaborating with private companies, the Government can accelerate the building of power plants, improve road and rail networks for efficient movement of raw materials and finished goods, and expedite the research and extraction of essential raw materials required for steel manufacturing. Furthermore, encouraging foreign investment in infrastructure through favourable laws and incentives would boost the sector's competitiveness and operational efficiency.

Technology Modernization: Modernizing steel manufacturing technology is vital for improving competitiveness and productivity. The Government can encourage technology modernization by providing tax breaks or duty exemptions for importing and creating new technologies. Furthermore, boosting research and development (R&D) in the steel industry through grants, subsidies, or public-private partnerships may spur innovation and accelerate the adoption of modern production processes. Collaborations with existing steel manufacturers and foreign research institutes can speed technology transfer and information sharing. By embracing cutting-edge technology, Nigeria's steel sector may enhance product quality, lower prices, and position itself for long-term success in the global market.

Resource Management and Exploration: Effective usage of indigenous iron ore resources needs regulations that streamline mining permits, fund exploration, and promote sustainable mining methods. The Government could simplify the process of getting mining permits by cutting bureaucracy and speeding up approvals for prudent mining operations. Investing in geological surveys and exploration efforts can help to identify new iron ore deposits, boosting the steel industry's resource base. Establishing sustainable mining methods, such as implementing environmental legislation and involving communities, is critical to reducing ecological consequences and guaranteeing the long-term profitability of iron ore production. By implementing these measures, Nigeria may maximize its iron ore resources to promote the expansion and development of its steel industry while limiting detrimental environmental effects.

Trade Policies: Balancing trade policy to preserve domestic steel industries and facilitate fair competition demands intelligent measures. The Government can impose tariffs on imported steel goods to protect domestic producers from unfair competition from foreign manufacturers that profit from subsidies or dumping. Anti-dumping measures can be used to combat the below-market cost of imported steel, which hurts domestic producers. Furthermore, negotiating advantageous trade agreements with terms that benefit the indigenous steel sector, such as quotas or preferential tariffs, might help Nigerian steel manufacturers improve their market access and competitiveness. These trade policies should be carefully adjusted to balance protecting home businesses and adhering to international trade obligations, resulting in Nigeria's competitive and sustainable steel sector.

Lessons can be analyzed from other developed Steel sectors across the globe. The Japanese steel industry witnessed massive growth and transition following WWII, emerging as a global leader by the end of the 1960s. Amid war-induced damage, Japan's steel sector was quickly rebuilt with extensive government assistance, including capital-raising advantages, direct subsidies on raw materials, and price stabilization measures. This assistance permitted a significant increase in steel output, from around 6 million metric tons in 1950 to more than 104 million metric tons by 1970. The industry's prosperity was fueled by strong domestic demand for infrastructure development and robust foreign exports, notably to the United States, where Japanese steel gained substantial market share in the 1960s and 1970s. Technological breakthroughs and a commitment to quality enabled Japanese steelmakers to export high-value-added goods, demonstrating their technological knowledge. This success story highlights the importance of government backing, modernization investment, and export-oriented initiatives in promoting fast industrial development and worldwide competitiveness. The industry's unusual dual structure, comprising huge integrated enterprises and specialist manufacturers, helped it achieve scale efficiency and flexibility in fulfilling different market demands.

Government Strategies for Nigerian Steel Sector Revitalization

The Nigerian government has initiated efforts to establish the steel sector profoundly. This includes plans to complete the Ajaokuta Steel Mill, the introduction of specialized insurance coverage for steel projects, and initiatives to improve the ease of business. In a recent press event, Minister of Steel Development Prince Audu Shuaibu Abubakar outlined the Federal Government's ambitious plan to revitalize Nigeria's steel and metal industries. The Government has set a ten-year strategy to reform the sector, with a three-year focus on rebuilding the Ajaokuta steel complex, which would require an estimated $2 billion to $5 billion. President Bola Tinubu's pledge to reduce the country's reliance on steel imports (90 per cent) over domestic production (10 per cent) highlights a fundamental shift in national industrial policy. Minister Audu detailed preliminary actions, including the staged resurrection of certain facilities inside the Ajaokuta complex, such as the light steel mill, with an N35 billion investment targeting an annual output capacity of 50,000 metric tons of iron rods. The Ministry of Works has agreed to purchase these iron rods for national infrastructure projects, displaying inter-ministerial cooperation to increase local content consumption. Legal issues concerning the steel facility have been handled, with a $490 million settlement fee paid to satisfy the remaining lawsuits. This strategy roadmap intends to use partnerships and off-take agreements to boost local production and industrial growth, establishing Nigeria as a self-sufficient steel and metal producer and promoting broader economic diversification.


Amid significant resources and previous investments, Nigeria's steel business confronts obstacles such as infrastructural shortages, regulatory inconsistencies, technical constraints, and global rivalry. Government policies are critical for rejuvenating the industry, including infrastructure development, technological modernization, effective resource management, and intelligent trade policies. Recent initiatives, such as the Ajaokuta Steel Mill completion plan and attempts to enhance the business climate, demonstrate a move toward self-sufficiency and economic diversification. With targeted government intervention and effective policies, Nigeria's steel sector has the potential to contribute significantly to long-term industrial growth and national development.


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